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The Modern Era is a complex one especially in the Middle East. There are several factors that have contributed to the complexities in the Middle East. One of the factors that have contributed to complexities in the Modern Era Middle East is religion. The Jewish/Palestinian question put Israel in conflict with the Arab World. The country called Israel was created within Middle East immediately after the Second World War and immediately, Palestinians started claiming the lands that Israel occupied. In the 1950’s there was tension between Israel and the Arab world. Most Arab nation had gained their independence from European imperialism. The establishment of Israel led to the increase of Jewish influence on the political platform. The people that once called Israel their home started demanding their rights back without UN intervention. The Israel- Palestine conflict is one of the lengthiest conflicts in world’s history and the peace process in this conflict has been going on for very many years. Though the peace process has been there for very many years the violent rivalry between Israel and Palestine has continued unabated and there seems to be no permanent peace attitude between the two antagonistic sides. Since early seventies, there have been several attempts to broker peace between Israel and Palestine. Treaties have been signed and broken; ceasefires have been made and contravened in the history of the process. There are several underlying issues that inform the conflict between the two sides. These issues include territorial boundaries, dispute over the West Bank and Gaza strip, dispute over the city of Jerusalem and the inalienable right of return of millions of Palestine citizens who have been living in exile or as refugees in camps. The process of restoring peace in this war torn part of the Middle East has been affected by untold controversies, widespread violence, accusations and counter accusations with both conflicting sides taking extreme positions.
The second factor that has contributed to complexities in the modern era Middle East is the Palestinian Liberation Organisation. The 1960’s saw the emergence of the Palestine Liberation Organisation. PLO started fuelling hate against Israel. Politics in Middle East in this decade revolved around the Jewish/Arab conflict. Oil started being an influential factor in Middle East politics, enabling more jihad attacks against Israel. The Jewish/Arab conflict intensified as Palestinian Liberation Organisation became more powerful and gained the support of more Arab countries. Oil is another factor that has created complexities in the modern era Middle East. Oil was produced predominantly by Middle East nations but European countries and America controlled the oil market. The 70s witnessed a growing resentment towards the west by Middle East countries. The west involvement in the Jewish/Palestinian conflict made the Arabs to resent western values. This metamorphosed into a clash between Islam and Christianity/Jewish religions. European countries started playing Arab countries against each other. The creation of OPEC placed oil in the control of Middle East countries. The countries extend their Jihad attacks to western countries especially United States of America and Middle Eastern countries that allied with the US. Voices of Islamic purity started emerging in the late 70s, giving Arab nations more political power. The other source of complexity is Jihad and internal strife. Countries in the Middle East started turning against each other. The 80s was the most defining decade in Middle East politics. There increased internal strife among Arab countries as the Cold War declined. The Iraq/Iran war created a unique Jihad. This was the first Jihad by one Arab nation against another. United States and British influence in the region started increasing again, leading to increased Islamic purity voices and resentment towards the west. The Israel- Palestinian conflict subsided as the strife between Iran and Iraq took centre stage.
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